Myanmar’s civil war started in 1960 when Ne Wen grabbed power, established a military government, denied ethnic groups the right of self-determination and began the Burmanization of the ethnic minorities. Since then, Myanmar has endured a civil war lasting more than 5 decades without any sign of ending. The Burman ethnic group makes up about 2/3 of the 60 million population in Myanmar, with a few large ethnic minority groups including the Shan, the Karen, the Kachin, the Mon and the Wa. There are 25 public ethnic armed groups and more than 10 low-profile ethnic armed groups in the country. In Shan State, there are more than 10 such groups constantly engaged in operations. Some of these groups were descendants of KMT soldiers or of BCP. However, the ones fighting most fiercely with the government military are not those with deep ties in China, but rather the KIA, who have historic U.S. connections and support. The U.S. has played an non-negligible role in the war between the Tatmadaw and the KIA.